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The roadmap outlines the development goals for the following three years, for all national foundation datasets within each theme. The goals are to be achieved in order to meet the defined end-state for the theme. Click here for full version of the roadmap. An unfunded goal indicates that the sponsor is actively seeking to resolve the funding issue. Dataset custodians are identified in the Dataset Profiles available on this website and their role in the delivery of the roadmaps is critical. Skip to main content. Main navigation Menu.

Land Parcel and Property. Datasets Land Parcel Boundaries is a dataset that contains parcels representing easements, roads, crossings, rail and water, in addition to the traditional view of land and strata based information. Land Tenure is a dataset that contains hierarchical classification of land parcels. Theme profile. Description Land Parcel and Property contains a record of interests in land. The data has geographical descriptions that allow users to link to information describing ownership, value of real property in a district and nature of the boundary A land parcel is an area of land with defined boundaries, under unique ownership for specific real property rights.

Datasets Land Parcels - This dataset contains a seamless national database of cadastral boundaries, excluding easements and road drainage easements, and parcel identifiers which are compatible with jurisdictional land titles. Both these datasets: Are aggregated from the jurisdictions land and property information data sets. Are updated by PSMA quarterly. Are available through commercial re-sellers. Have edge matching issues at jurisdictional boundaries.

Vary in currency with some jurisdictions providing planned parcel information and others only as built with up to 6 month time delay There is currently no single vertical integration of the Land Parcel and Property theme for the national coverage. Future Status The national land parcels and property data will be provided as a nationally consistent land parcel and property dataset which will support and deliver this information through the vertical and horizontal integration of the listed datasets.

The dataset will include: Matching with address data and a unique parcel identifier Daily updates A spatial accuracy of 1—10 metres A consistent, edge matched national coverage All planned parcel information Other information about associated property identifiers Lot on a Deposited Plan Easement information A single point of access to information on rights, responsibilities and restrictions over land regardless of who imposes them: Information about planned and actual land use Information on land valuation Information about development approvals The ability for properties to be displayed in 3D A two-way mechanism for users to feedback information on perceived errors, omissions or other issues will be provided.

It gives examples of legal, organisational, and technical issues that need to be addressed in order to establish and maintain a Cadastre. The statement also describes some of the different roles that surveyors play in the management and operation of a Cadastre. This statement does not recommend a uniform cadastre for every country or jurisdiction. A Cadastre is normally a parcel based, and up-to-date land information system containing a record of interests in land e. It usually includes a geometric description of land parcels linked to other records describing the nature of the interests, the ownership or control of those interests, and often the value of the parcel and its improvements.

It may be established for fiscal purposes e. Land management is the process of managing the use and development of land resources. Some of the critical, and sometimes conflicting, objectives that must be addressed by land management policies today include:.

CHAPTER 4. Land information systems: Services and tools of public land administration

A prerequisite for achieving these and other objectives is having effective access to information about land, e. This information is essential in:. While land management can have many social and environmental objectives, most developing nations must give priority to immediate economic objectives. Formalising and providing security for property rights in land, through public recognition and recording, is today considered to be a primary component of a free market economy and an essential step in moving towards improved standards of living.

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The Cadastre is the primary means of providing information about property rights. More specifically, the Cadastre provides the private and public sector with:. The Cadastre is a land information system, usually managed by one or more government agencies. Traditionally the Cadastre was designed to assist in land taxation, real estate conveyancing, and land redistribution. The Cadastre helps to provide those involved in land transactions with relevant information and helps to improve the efficiency of those transactions and security of tenure in general.

It provides governments at all levels with complete inventories of land holdings for taxation and regulation. But today, the information is also increasingly used by both private and public sectors in land development, urban and rural planning, land management, and environmental monitoring. A Cadastre is normally a parcel-based system, ie. These units are defined by the formal or informal boundaries marking the extent of lands held for exclusive use by individuals and specific groups of individuals e.

Each parcel is given a unique code or parcel identifier. Examples of these codes include addresses, co-ordinates, or lot numbers shown on a survey plan or map. Graphical indices of these parcels, known as cadastral maps, show the relative location of all parcels in a given region. Cadastral maps commonly range from scales of , to Large scale diagrams or maps showing more precise parcel dimensions and features e. Information in the textual or attribute files of the Cadastre, such as land value, ownership, or use, can be accessed by the unique parcel codes shown on the cadastral map, thus creating a complete Cadastre.

The Cadastre forms part of the base data required in any public land information system. Since information about land parcels and land holdings is often needed by many different users, having a unified, standard Cadastre for each jurisdiction helps to avoid duplication and assists in the efficient exchange of information.

The Cadastre is usually created and managed through a government organisation. In some countries, Cadastres may be the responsibility of local governments; in others it is a state or national responsibility. Examples of the data of general interest to a wide user community, that is usually considered part of the Cadastre, include:. Other information can also be connected to land parcels through the unique parcel identifiers and through cadastral index maps.

Such information may be of importance to specific user groups and includes:. The Cadastre plays an important role in the regulation of land use.

Land use regulations stipulate conditions for the initial establishment of a parcel e. In land development, the Cadastre forms an essential part of the information required by the private developer, land owners, and the public authorities to ensure that benefits are maximised and costs economic, social, and environmental are minimised.

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Most early societies developed rudimentary types of Cadastres to support taxation and other land administration activities. As societies evolved and property transactions became important, Cadastral records began to take on a greater legal role. Today, Cadastres often serve many functions and multiple users. Through the centuries, many types of Cadastral systems evolved and their differences often depend upon local cultural heritage, physical geography, land use, technology, etc.

Cadastres may be classified in many ways, e. All of these factors help to determine the required resolution and scale of graphical data such as cadastral maps , the type and characteristics of data recorded in both the graphical and attribute files, and the organisational and professional responsibility for managing the data. In continental Europe, as in most countries worldwide, the responsibility for managing cadastral information has historically been divided among several government organisations and professions.

Land registration has generally been the mandate for the courts and the legal profession. Mapping, parcel boundary delimitation, and maintenance of parcel data for fiscal, land use control, and land redistribution purposes have been the responsibility of the surveying profession. In regions such as North America, other professions have historically been responsible for land use planning and for land valuation and taxation.

One major consequence of the development of modern land information systems using computer technology has been the creation of closer coordination among organisations responsible for parts of the Cadastral data. In some countries, the functions of legal and fiscal land recording, surveying, and mapping have been merged into one organisation. In other countries, the information needed for the different purposes has been coordinated into one information system or arranged in such a way that different systems can easily exchange information.

The role of the surveyor differs with the purpose of the Cadastre and with different types of organisations. Although there are other activities involved in managing the Cadastre, such as title recording that is usually the responsibility of legal experts, the surveyor may be responsible for:. It usually includes the process of re-establishing lost boundaries and sometimes resolving disputes over boundaries or other interests in real property. There are always specific regulations regarding training and experience for surveyors wishing to carry out cadastral surveys because they have a professional responsibility to society.

Cadastral surveys are carried out by governmental officials and private surveyors or by a combination of both. Special certification is required and this can be administered either by the state or by a professional society. A unique parcel identifier is allocated to each parcel.

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The examination can check on land policy matters for instance, does the subdivision contribute to a suitable land use? To lower examination costs, government authorities are putting more emphasis on quality assurance and more responsibility on practising surveyors for the accuracy of their field data and survey plans. The most common example is valuation for taxation. But valuation is also important in processes such as expropriation of land and land consolidation where a systematic survey of all properties may be carried out to establish relative values for compensating affected property owners.

Subdivision and consolidation surveys may also include establishing the construction and maintenance costs of roads and other joint facilities in order to distribute the costs among the new land holders. As a professional, the surveyor is responsible for protecting the interests of the community and this may involve public consultation and mediation processes. The result may be a new land use plan, where economical, environmental and traditional points of view, reach conciliation.

As this is an important component in a modern Cadastre, experts are needed to manage and operate large databases, for graphical information as well as textual information. Surveyors play an important role in this field of activity and education in computer systems is an integral component of today's education and training programs for surveyors.

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These can be questions such as: should a land division be permitted, taking into account the interests of both private developers and the general public? Consequently, the role of the surveyor has developed from being an independent expert on a committee or in a court, to being the actual first court instead. What types of land tenure are represented in the Cadastre? Land tenure is concerned with the rights, restrictions, and responsibilities people have with respect to the land. From a legal perspective, land may be defined as any portion of the earth to which rights of ownership, stewardship, or use may be exercised.

Thus the land may include, for example, the surface area of the earth, buildings and permanently fixed improvements, surface and subsurface resources including water, and in some instances even well-defined units of air space e. Often the land and the buildings on the land are referred to as real estate and the various rights associated with land are called real property.

Any type of real property can be recorded in a Cadastre if the right or restriction can be associated with a definite unit of land. Different types of rights may be shown on different cadastral maps or layers of map data. Thus, for example, mineral rights may be shown on a separate map, even perhaps at a smaller scale than the surface rights. The most important types of land tenure or real property identified in most Cadastral systems can be characterised as follows:. It also includes the right to transfer the parcel to another person, to mortgage the property and to lease it.

Technical Testing of Mobile Applications for Cadastral Surveys

All of these rights may be more or less restricted by legislation. It is common today that the legal rights of the land owner are restricted to using the parcel of land in a manner that is beneficial and appropriate from a community perspective. Restrictions may also include measures to protect the environment.

Ownership of the land usually includes ownership of any buildings on the land, but in some jurisdictions land and buildings may be owned separately. The lessor may be a private landowner or a government authority. The time span of a lease varies from very short periods e. Leasehold tenure is usually not transferable to a third party without the consent of the owner. It is not usually possible to use leaseholds as collateral for loans, unless the lease is for a considerable period.

A lessee of land may own a building erected on that land and the building may be used as collateral. Leaseholds for buildings and land can also differ in time span.


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The right is usually connected to the parcel and exists in principle as long as the parcel exists. Special easements or rights-of-way may also exist for such uses as construction and access to utility lines.


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There may also be traditional public rights-of-way over certain parcels to provide access to rivers, the coast, roads, etc. If the property owner does not live up to the terms of the contract e. There may be more than one mortgage affecting a property and the right of recovery for losses will depend on the priority given to each mortgage.

In some jurisdictions, the lender actually acquires the title or ownership of the property at the time the mortgage contract is signed. In this case the property owner has the right of possession and use but the full ownership only transfers back when all the terms of the contract have been met e. In other jurisdictions, the lender only receives the right to repossess the property if the property owner defaults on the mortgage e.

In such cases, the right to use the land and resources belongs to a group such as a family, a community, a clan, or a band, rather than individuals in the group. Such rights are often found in customary tenure systems, but not exclusively. Different types of communal rights exist, with varying degrees of restrictions and control on the rights of individual members. Authors acknowledge the kind support and information given by Surveyor General Mr S. The views expressed in the paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those who have supported to its preparation.

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